In higher education, higher professional education in particular, there is an interdependence between education and professional field or discipline which is being trained. An interdependence, where own goals, capabilities and results achieved. With great conviction is sought to maximize the alignment. But what is optimal? And for whom? Actors in this are both teachers, as the program management, but also the students and the profession itself.
Optimal alignment is at the teacher training and detailed agreements between employer (s). Optimal match is the technology aimed at boosting the technical study. Optimal coordination is in many other programs occasionally meet with professional representatives. With this research, I identify what the actors do to get a grip on this interdependence, which is also the experience of loss of autonomy and range entails, or, more positively put, a certain degree of action required and perhaps negotiate with them entails. Grip is only possible if there is consciousness, so the first question is whether programs that they depend on the profession and how they experience it. An initial theming is thus interdependent.
The review will look if and how training and acting or not give substance to this interdependence, which play their motive and whether criteria identified where training can deduce that they are successful (optimal) interact with the professional / discipline.
The Dutch publicity around early 2011 the quality of training, INHOLLAND in particular, makes clear that the interdependence of education is a crucial factor. In this report, the Inspectorate of Education (April 2011) refers to the measurement and the involvement of the professional in the assessment of final papers.
At the same time we see that higher professional influence on the labour market by a certain type of practitioner to deliver. As a result, employers are increasingly using in-house training where graduates - according to their employers - have yet learned the trade.
Providing training indicated that they often experience a gap between training and the professional / discipline. In one program that is great, the other smaller.
As both a professional Degree own version of the story, and each pursues its own goals and directs the action in it, how is still a training mode that is recognizable as a preparation for working? How and when to justify a program of her choice? Only in the accreditation? Or are there more cases? We know for instance the so-called multiple public accountability? Where is that from?
We also see a movement of higher vocational education to another frame of reference. For example, the Education in School of Knowledge (2001) on the role of colleges in the circulation of knowledge described: "Contacts between the colleges and universities for college is very important to keep abreast of new playing fields in science and technology. This cooperation takes place in some instances, it is often very personal. In general, this cooperation is limited structural in nature ".
Relates to what is actually higher professional? To university? The professional? The wider society? Himself? The opinion of the SER (2000) following the policy of Education HOOP 2000, noted that "a good framework for assessing the position of higher education in the knowledge society is missing. Not exactly clear what is good and less good and what is desirable or feasible. In other words, the position of higher education in the knowledge society is not defined as an objective ".
This is an initiative of Hans A. Frederik, with the aim of creating a scientific research carried out can result in a dissertation. This is a preparatory document and this document will be submitted at CHEPS as an admission document to be assessed whether it is sufficient level of research and its fit within the research framework of CHEPS.
2. Who is Hans A. Frederik
My varied career is characterized by a broad interest: independent entrepreneur, teacher, consultant and auditor today. During my study Law, I was as an entrepreneur owns a catering facility. Afterwards I worked as a research assistant in Business at the University of Twente, ten years in management science taught computer science courses at the University of Amsterdam and I include director of IT staff service was at Leiden University and director of Pabo Thomas More in Rotterdam. There came a stage in my PABO added that a starter, as a starter, the professional must be able to show what the latest developments in the art (knowledge distribution / circulation of knowledge).
I am also very active in the administrative platform for ICT professionals (NGI), Dutch Science Education Congress (NIOC), the Council of European Professional Informatics Societies (CEPIS) and the European Quality Assurance Network for Informatics Education (EQANIE.
Right now I work half time at Hobιon in The Hague, quality assurance and management consulting agency in education. I work there as an auditor and as the Dutch-Flemish Accreditation Organization (NVAO) certified secretary.
This gives me access to a wealth of data in accreditation processes and audits to be collected. I myself as secretary (author of reports) has participated in more than 50 audits. In addition, I have encountered many situations that amaze me. First, the disparity in the way programs interpret their interaction with the professional / discipline. But also through the ritual character that about accountability.
3. The context of higher education
On paper everything is settled and then in practice it differently. Where does that discrepancies between paper and practice come from? Who is owner of this dilemma?
3.1. The frames
This study is about the interaction between education and the professional in Dutch higher professional education undertaken by colleges. The positioning of colleges in the legislation is key framework. In the Act (2011) is several times higher professional and college specifically described in relation to the profession (enveld) which is being trained:
Higher professional education is aimed at the transfer of theoretical knowledge and skill development in close cooperation with the professional (WHW, Art. 1.1, sub d);
Colleges are aimed at providing higher vocational education. They carry out design or research and development activities aimed at professional practice. (...). They contribute to the development of professions in which education is directed. (WHW, Art. 1.3, sub 3);
If an institution offers a program aimed at a particular occupation, and under the law or requirements are made regarding the knowledge, understanding and the skills involved are based on the training for that occupation must have acquired, carries institutional management ensure that those who follow this training, at least the opportunity to those requirements. (WHW, Art. 7.6, sub 1)
Courses which are specifically targeted to specific occupations include at least one practical preparation for professional practice. (WHW, Art. 7.6, sub 3)
In short, this means that the Act requires that higher professional education is focused on theoretical knowledge and skills in close cooperation with the professional and should contribute to the development of professions in which education is directed. If it is trained for a profession where the law sets requirements (physiotherapist etc.) then the setting at least the opportunity to meet those requirements.
Since 2003 (NVAO, 2003), any course in Dutch higher education every six years required to apply for accreditation. To this end, a report prepared by outside experts using a self-evaluation of the training with an assessment visit by a panel of auditors. The assessment is taking place based on the NVAO assessment framework. This assessment framework is also well made to terms like occupation, profession, discipline and discipline, for a total twenty-nine times, and always as a criterion by which a program can demonstrate that it is an education of sufficient quality.
From 2011, the NVAO frames (NVAO, 2011) renewed. Given the recency of this framework it is interesting to see what the new boxes are made on professional and discipline. There are almost no reports available in which this framework has been applied.
In the 2011 assessment frameworks, using reference to the profession and discipline. Striking feature is that the number of times the concepts profession, professional, and professional discipline used is limited.
For accreditation for the program is the interaction between education and the professional one issue that must be reported. It should be recognized or met the expectations of the profession / discipline. Courses may only officially recognized certificates issued as of the relevant program is accredited. Accreditation is obtained when the training has been shown that the education offered at least the basic quality is that the Dutch legislation would be required. The monitoring and implementation of this legislation is in the hands of NVAO, an independent government body.
In these assessments is always an element of accountability of the training, responsibility that it meets the expectations of the profession. What about when the practice appears to be different than on paper? What is the value of this account? Can you commit criteria that relationship?
In 2001 the Commission wrote to French (2001): "More autonomy for the institutions needed for the providers of higher education adequately responsive to the demand for education, the competencies and skills that the professional demands and the intrinsic quality requirements from the relevant disciplines should be made. "
Training communicate very little about how they know what the employed are expected and experienced.
In general it is not a public relations issue. The discussion about the quality of courses, particularly in Inholland, shows that the public debate, and then a lot of attention: `What is the value of a college degree?`
Within the accreditation process are often the ritual dances of a few people, assembled in a professional committee, say something about training.Rituals to meet the obligations of the NVAO. What is the value of the assessment? These criteria are no more than the required match, conducted under the watchful eye of NVAO as dance teacher and jury?
The Law on Higher Education and Scientific Research (WHW, 1992, 593) is described HBO as "education that focuses on the transfer of theoretical knowledge and skill development in close cooperation with the professional."
In Themes (December 2010) entitled "Choosing Quality" write Ad de Graaf (director HBO-Raad) and Roland Smith (HBO-council policy) on the focus of HBO. With the subtitle "profiling in advanced vocational education", this article on the conclusions of Veerman Committee on a Future Proof System of Higher Education, which highlighted the increase in the expectations it imposes on the professional graduates.
This (objective) research focuses on criteria that indicate when the harmonization with the professional / discipline optimal. In this context it is easy to see what criteria apply yourself college courses. When appealing a "Best Practice" I refer here to the Riga Letter (Stapert, 1999), in which a systematic list is given of how the Stockholm-Riga Business school handles the coordination with the professional. The core of this story is that alumni are systematically followed and that companies that trainees have systematically questioned about the quality of the students concerned and on the question of whether improvements / changes in the training program.In addition, the experiences of students during their internship experience in a fixed format exchanged and discussed. Result is evident in the yearly review of the program. This sounds like a dictatorship then in the professional, higher professional has a responsibility?
3.3. HBO generic competencies
In the accreditation letter (2002) are the qualifications to be followed by an HBO HBO trained to meet. Coenen (2001) has identified the following HBO qualifications:
transfer and capable of functioning;
creativity and complexity in action;
methodical and reflective thinking and acting;
social and communication skills;
basic qualification for management positions;
sense of social responsibility.
Mertens (2001), former Inspector-General Inspectorate has published a book on the occasion of his retirement. In the section on 'training without jobs', he writes: "Vocational education has the task of the young people to move along two tracks: the course towards a specific professional field while keeping options open for other opportunities in the personal and social life. "And on page 56 says Mertens," the graduate's degree is the job market well incorporated. This fact does not excuse any shortcomings in quality and inefficiencies in education ".
3.4. They must learn
In line with these generic competencies Pim Breebaart HBO (2011), former chairman of the board of The Hague University, a plea for strengthening the way in which colleges to educate students in academic skills and deeper understanding of the concepts and renewal of the profession.
What our students learn? How do they learn? We test with scientifically validated test what they learn? What is the value of a college? According Breebaart these questions not easily answered. That college students are taught in many vocational skills to every insider clear. But the colleges teach students in academic skills that lead to deeper understanding of the concepts and renewal of the profession? Breebaart confirms my point that the graduate college requirements are not only related to professional competencies and professional skills, but also the abstraction of the reflexive practitioner. An expectation that also combined with the professional / field interpretation will be given.